Geleijnse studied biomedical sciences in Leyden and did a master in epidemiology in Rotterdam. She did a PhD at Erasmus University Rotterdam on research into sodium, potassium and blood pressure. Since 1999 she works at the department of Human Nutrition at Wageningen University, since 2015 as professor in nutrition and cardiovascular disease. Her research focuses on the role of nutrition and lifestyle in preventing and treating cardiometabolic diseases and risk factors for these. One element is the so called Alpha Omega Cohort, a long-term study in cardiac patients, of which Geleijnse is programme manager. In addition she participates in various projects in the field of sustainable, healthy nutrition. Geleijnse has 250 scientific papers to her name.

She is known to the Health Council: she was involved in the making of the Dutch dietary guidelines 2015 and is a member of the permanent Committee on Nutrition (until 1 January 2018).

Geleijnse succeeds Hans Severens, who will become Dean of the Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management (ESHPM).